Cramer Bio

Prof. Stephen Cramer Curriculum Vitae

Stephen P. Cramer, Advanced Light Source Professor, LBNL & UC Davis

Website: http://chemgroups.ucdavis.edu/~cramer/index.html 291 Margarita Court, Los Altos, CA 94022

spjcramer@ucdavis.edu 650-823-0557 Born: January 16, 1952 in Oceanside, New York

Summary of Career

1991 — Senior Faculty Scientist, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Berkeley, CA 1991 — Advanced Light Source Professor, University of California – Davis, CA

professor, Applied Science, Biophysics, and Chemistry Graduate groups 2002 & 2004 Visiting Professor, University of California – Berkeley, CA 2003 & 2006 Visiting Scholar, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 2003 Visiting Scientist, Advanced Photon Source – Argonne National Lab 2001 Visiting Adjunct Professor, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 1995 Visiting Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 1994-1995 SSRL Adjunct Professor, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 1990-2000 Adjunct Professor, Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University 1988-1990 Physicist, National Synchrotron Light Source, Upton, NY 1986-1988 Member of Professional Staff, Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT 1985-1986 Chair, SSRL Users' Organization 1978-1986 Research, Staff, then Senior Staff Chemist and Group Head, Exxon Research, Annandale, NJ

Summary of Education

Williams College, Williamstown, MA: B.A. Chemistry 1969-1973 – Lehman Scholar Stanford University, Stanford, CA: Ph.D. Chemistry 1973-1977 – IBM Pre-doctoral Fellow California Institute of Technology: Post-doc 1977-1978 – NIH Post-doctoral Fellow

Publications Summary: 218 papers, including 12 book chapters h-index: 47, and 1 patent

Research Area Summary: Development and Application of Spectroscopic Techniques (primarily using synchrotron radiation) for Chemical Characterization of Biological Systems and Complex Materials

 

Relevant Publications

[1.] "The Molybdenum Site of Nitrogenase -Preliminary Structural Evidence from X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy", Cramer, S. P.; Hodgson, K. O.; Gillum, W. O.; Mortenson, L. E. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1978, 100, 3398-3407. (EXAFS)

[2.] "Soft X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism -A Probe for Studying Paramagnetic Bioinorganic Systems", van Elp, J.; George, S. J.; Chen, J.; Peng, G.; Chen, C. T.; Tjeng, L. H.; Meigs, G.; Lin, H. J.; Zhou, Z. H.; Adams, M. W. W.; Searle, B. G.; Cramer, S. P. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 1993, 90, 9664-9667 (Soft X-Ray & XMCD)

[3.] "Electronic Structure of Ni Complexes by X-Ray Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering)", Glatzel, P.; Bergmann, U.; Gu, W.; Wang, H.; Stepanov, S.; Mandimutsira, B. S.; Riordan, C. G.; Horwitz, C. P.; Collins, T.; Cramer,

S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124, 9668 -9669. (RIXS)

[4.] "Observation of the Fe-CN and Fe-CO Vibrations in the Active Site of [NiFe] Hydrogenase by Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy", Kamali, S.; Wang, H.; Mitra, D.; Ogata, H.; Lubitz, W.; Manor, B.; Rauchfuss, T.; Byrne, D.; Bonnefoy, V.; Jenney, F.; Adams, M. W.; Yoda, Y.; Alp, E.; Zhao, J.; Cramer, S. P. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2013, 52, 724-728, cover article (NRVS)

[5.] "Synchrotron X-ray analyses demonstrate phosphate-bound gadolinium in skin in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis", George, S. J.; Webb, S. M.; Abraham, J. L.; Cramer, S. P. Brit. J. Dermatology, 2010, 163, 1077-1081 (EXAFS & imaging)

 

 

Other

  • Current Funding Awards: NIH R01GM065440-09, 1-May-12: $1,364K; DOE S-4499 1-Oct-12: $600K DOE Subcontract via Stanford: Sep-‘09 $230K; DOE via Montana: Oct-‘10 $152K, NIH via Michigan: Apr-‘12 $44K
  • Awards: 2010 – American Chemical Society “Spectrochemical Analysis” Award; 2012 – International X-Ray Absorption Society “Edward Stern Outstanding Achievement Award”
  • Invited named lectureship: Xiamen University (China) Lu Jiaxi Lectureship (July 23, 2012)
  • Organisation of conferences: 2006 – Vice Chair, 2008 – Chair – Iron-Sulfur Enzymes Gordon Research Conference
  • Committees: International X-Ray Absorption Society Executive Committee; APS Sector-3 Advisory Committee
  • Supervision: Current: 4 Staff & postdocs and 5 students; Career: 18 Graduate Students & 22 Postdoctoral Scholars

 

Graduate Advisors : Bruce Hudson and Keith Hodgson, Stanford Postdoctoral Sponsor: Harry Gray, Cal Tech

Students and Postdocs:

Bergmann, Uwe, LCLS -SLAC; Braun, Artur: EMPA, Switzerland; Bryant, Craig: RheoSense Inc., San Ramon, CA; Carpenter, Matthew H: UC Davis; Christiansen, Jason: HistoRX, New Haven, CT; Chen, Jie: Miradia Corp., San Jose, CA; Deb, Aniruddha: U. Michigan; Demuez, Marie: IMDEA Energia, Spain; Drury, Owen B.: Lawrence Livermore National Lab; Eidsness, Marlie: Bayer HealthCare; Flank, Anne-Marie: Synchrotron SOLEIL, Friedrich, Stephan: Lawrence Livermore National Lab; Fu, Juxia: Canadian Light Source; Funk, Tobias: UC San Francisco; George, Graham: U. Saskatchewan; George, Simon: UC Davis; Glatzel, Pieter: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility; Grady-Smith, Cela: NetSuite, San Mateo, CA; Grush, Melissa N/A; Gu, Weiwei: LBNL; Guo, Yisong: Carnegie-Mellon; Jacquamet, Lillian: (deceased); Miller, Lisa: NSLS, Brookhaven National Lab; Mitra, Devrani: U. Chicago; Mitra-Kirtley, Sudipa: Rose-Hulman; Peng, Gang, N/A; Piamonteze, Cinthia: Swiss Light Source; Ralston, Corie: LBNL; Randall, Clay: ?; Scott, Aubrey D., UC Davis; Smith, Matt: Calera Corp., San Jose, CA; van Elp, J. Hiroshima Synchrotron Source; Wang, Hong-Xin: UC Davis; Wang, Xin: IBM Almaden Research, San Jose, CA; Weiss, Brenda: N/A; Xiao, Yuming: APS, Argonne National Lab; Yan, Lifen: UC Davis

 

Current Research Funding

ACTIVE

DOE Subcontract via Stanford – 24253090-45900-A 09/15/09-09/14/13 $80 K/yr Role: Subcontractor “Using in vitro Maturation and Cell-Free Evolution to Understand [Fe-Fe] H2ase Activation and Active Site Constraints”

The goal is to FT-IR to characterize the biosynthesis and degradation of Fe-S clusters in FeFe hydrogenases

 

DOE Subcontract via Montana State – G163-11-W3270 10/1/10–9/14/13 $35.7 K/yr Role: Subcontractor

The goal is to FT-IR to characterize the biosynthesis of Fe-S clusters for FeFe H2ases on the ‘scaffold’ Hyd F.

 

DOE – OBER Funding via Lawrence Berkeley National Lab

Role: Principle Investigator $650,000/yr “ABEX – A Facility for Advanced Biological and Environmental Spectroscopy” – ongoing

This is a project to develop a national facility for soft x-ray experiments at the ALS to serve scientists working on biological and environmental problems. It pays for half of the PI’s salary, a graduate student, and part of a staff scientist.

 

NIH – Subcontract via U. Michigan – 3002399467 4/1/12 -3/31/15 $44 K/yr

Role: Subcontractor

The goal is to use FT-IR to characterize the CODH/ACS enzyme.

NIGMS (2R01GM065440 -15A1/11) – $1,364,084: 5/1/12 – 1/31/16 “Synchrotron Spectroscopy of Nitrogenase and Hydrogenase” Role: Principle Investigator

The goal is to use nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy, along with other methods, to characterize the Fe-based active sites and catalytic mechanisms in H2ase, N2ase, and related enzymes.

Role: Principal Investigator. Overlap. This proposal will study one of the same systems, nitrogenase, but on time scales shorter than what is proposed under NIH grant GM-65440. It has not yet been reviewed. 

PENDING

NSF 1308384 – submitted 11/2/12 “Spectroscopy of Early Intermediates in Nitrogenase Catalysis -From Steady State to Femtoseconds”




Stephen P. Cramer: Last 10-Year Publications
(complete list of 218 publications at: http://chemgroups.ucdavis.edu/~cramer/Pub_Other_page.html)    

                                                 
[1.]
"The Fe-only Nitrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus: identification of the cofactor, an unusual high­

nuclearity iron-sulfur cluster, by Fe K-edge EXAFS and 57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopy", Krahn, E.; Weiss, B. J. R.; Kröckel, M.; Groppe, J.; Hekel, G.; Cramer, S. P.; Trautwein, A. X.; Schneider, K.; Müller, A. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem., 2002, 7, 37-45.

[2.] "Anisotropic valence → core x-ray fluorescence from a [Rh(en)3][Mn(N)(CN)5] . H2O single crystal:Experimental results and density functional calculations", Bergmann, U.; Bendix, J.; Glatzel, P.; Gray, H. B.;Cramer, S. P. J. Chem. Phys., 2002, 116, 2011-2015.

[3.] "A Multichannel Superconducting X-ray Spectrometer for High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Dilute

Samples", Friedrich, S.; Funk, T.; Drury, O.; S. E. Labov; Cramer, S. P. Rev. Sci. Inst., 2002, 73, 1629-1631.

[4.] "Requirements for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism on paramagnetic biological systems and modelcompounds", Funk, T.; Friedrich, S.; Young, A.; Arenholz, E.; Cramer, S. P. Rev. Sci. Inst., 2002, 73, 1649-1651.

[5.] "Nickel-iron-sulfur complexes: approaching structural analogues of the active sites of NiFe-hydrogenaseand carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase", Smith, M. C.; Barclay, J. E.; Cramer, S. P.; Davies,

S. C.; Gu, W.-W.; Hughes, D. L.; Longhurst, S.; Evans, D. J. J. Chem. Soc. Dalton Trans., 2002, 2641-2647. [6.] "Site-Selective EXAFS in Mixed-Valent Compounds Using High Resolution Fluorescence Spectroscopy: A

Study of Fe in Prussian Blue", Glatzel, P.; Jacquemet, L.; Bergmann, U.; deGroot, F. M. F.; Cramer, S. P. Inorg. Chem., 2002, 41, 3121-3127.

[7.] "X-ray Raman Spectroscopy at the Oxygen K-Edge of Water and Ice: Implications on Local Structural

Models", Bergmann, U.; Wernet, P.; Glatzel, P.; Cavalleri, M.; Pettersson, L. G. M.; Nilsson, A.; Cramer, S. P.

Phys. Rev. B, 2002, 6, 2104-2107.

[8.] "Bulk-sensitive XAS characterization of light elements: from X-ray Raman scattering to X-ray Ramanspectroscopy", Bergmann, U.; Glatzel, P.; Cramer, S. P. Microchem. J., 2002, 71, 221-230.

[9.] "Electronic Structure of Ni Complexes by X-Ray Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering)", Glatzel, P.; Bergmann, U.; Gu, W.; Wang, H.; Stepanov, S.; Mandimutsira, B. S.; Riordan, C.G.; Horwitz, C. P.; Collins, T.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124, 9668 -9669.

[10.] "High-Resolution X-Ray Imaging Based on Curved Bragg Mirrors: First Results", Bergmann, U.; Ivanovic,M.; Glatzel, P.; Cramer, S. P. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 2003, 50, 140-145.

[11.] "Refinement of the Nickel Site Structure in Desulfovibrio gigas Hydrogenase Using Range-Extended EXAFS Spectroscopy", Gu, W.; Jacquamet, L.; Patil, D. S.; Wang, H.-X.; Evans, D. J.; Smith, M. C.; Millar, M.;Koch, S.; Eichhorn, D. M.; Latimer, M.; Cramer, S. P. J. Inorg. Biochem., 2003, 93, 41-51.

[12.] "Origin of chemical shift of manganese in lithium battery electrode materials -A comparison of hard andsoft -x-ray techniques", Braun, A.; Bergmann, U.; Wang, H.; Gu, W.; Cramer, S. P.; Tucker; Cairns, E. J. J. Power Sources, 2003, 112, 231-235.

[13.] "Multiple Excitations in the K Fluorescence Emission of Mn, Fe, and Ni", Glatzel, P.; Bergmann, U.; de Groot, F. M. F.; Cramer, S. P., in X-Ray and Inner Shell Processes; Bianconi, A., Marcelli, A. and Saini, N. L., Ed.; American Institute of Physics: Melville, N. Y., 2003; Vol. 652, pp. 250-255.

[14.] "Functional Copper at the Acetyl-CoA Synthase Active Site", Seravalli, J.; Gu, W. W.; Tam, A.; Strauss, E.;

Begley, T. P.; Cramer, S. P.; Ragsdale, S. W. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 2003, 100, 3689-3694.

[15.] "Observation of Fe-H/D Modes by Nuclear Resonant Vibrational Spectroscopy", Bergmann, U.;Sturhahn, W.; Linn, D. E.; Jenney Jr., F. E.; Adams, M. W. W.; Rupnik, K.; Hales, B. J.; Alp, E. E.; Mayse, A.;Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 4016-4017.

[16.] "Carbon K-edge x-ray Raman spectroscopy supports simple, yet powerful description of aromatichydrocarbons and asphaltenes", Bergmann, U.; Groenzin, H.; Mullins, O. C.; Glatzel, P.; Fetzer, J.; Cramer, S. P.Chem. Phys. Lett., 2003, 369, 184-191.

[17.] "Characterization of chromodulin by X-ray absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies and magnetic susceptibility measurements", Jacquamet, L.; Sun, Y. J.; Hatfield, J.; Gu, W. W.;Cramer, S. P.; Crowder, M. W.; Lorigan, G. A.; Vincent, J. B.; Latour, J. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 774-780.

[18.] "A multichannel superconducting tunnel junction detector for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy ofmagnesium diboride films", Friedrich, S.; Vailionis, A.; Drury, O.; Niedermayr, T.; Funk, T.; Kang, W. N.; Choi,

E. M.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, S. I.; Cramer, S. P.; Kim, C.; Labov, S. E. IEEE Trans. App. Supercon., 2003, 13, 1114-1119.

[19.] "X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism -A Primer for Chemists", Cramer, S. P., in Paramagnetic Resonance of Metallobiomolecules; Telser, J., Ed.; American Chemical Society: Washington, D. C., 2003; Vol. 858, pp. 358-402.

[20.] "A Stable Monomeric Nickel-Borohydride", Desrochers, P. J.; LeLievre, S.; Johnson, R. J.; Lamb, B. T.;

Phelps, A. L.; Cordes, A. W.; Gu, W. W.; Cramer, S. P. Inorg. Chem., 2003, 42, 7945-7950. [21.] "Inner-shell excitation spectroscopy of fused-ring aromatic molecules by electron energy loss and X-rayRaman technique", Gordon, M. L.; Tulumello, D.; Cooper, G.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Glatzel, P.; Mullins, O. C.;Cramer, S. P.; Bergmann, U. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2003, 107, 8512-8520.

[22.] "The A-Cluster in Subunit β of the Acetyl-CoA Decarbonylase/Synthase Complex from Methanosarcina thermophila : Ni and Fe K-edge XANES and EXAFS Analyses", Gu, W. W.; Gencic, S.; Grahame, D. A.; Cramer,

S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 15343-15351.

[23.] "Chemically Distinct Ni sites in the A-cluster in Subunit β of the Acetyl-CoA Decarbonylase/Synthase Complex from Methanosarcina thermophila: Ni L-edge Absorption and X-Ray Magnetic Circular DichroismAnalyses", Funk, T.; Gu, W.-W.; Friedrich, S.; Wang, H.; Grahame, D. A.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004,126, 88-95.

[24.] "CO-Induced Structural Rearrangement of the C-cluster in Carboxydothermus hydrogenformans CO Dehydrogenase -Evidence from Ni K-Edge X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy", Gu, W. W.; Seravalli, J.; Ragsdale, S. W.; Cramer, S. P. Biochemistry, 2004, 43, 9029-9035.

[25.] "Evidence that Ni-Ni Acetyl-CoA Synthase Is Active and that the Cu-Ni Enzyme Is Not", Seravalli, J.;Xiao, Y.-M.; Gu, W.-W.; S. P. Cramer; Antholine, W. E.; Krymov, V.; Gerfen, G. J.; Ragsdale, S. W. Biochemistry,2004, 43, 3944-3955.

[26.] "X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Nickel(II) Azurin", Funk, T.; Kennepohl,P.; Di Bilio, A. J.; Wehbi, W. A.; Young, A. T.; Friedrich, S.; Arenholz, E.; Gray, H. B.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126, 5859-5866.

[27.] "Superconducting High-Resolution X-Ray Spectrometers for Chemical State Analysis of Dilute Samples",Friedrich, S.; Drury, O. B.; Funk, T.; Sherrell, D.; Yachandra, V. K.; Labov, S. E.; Cramer, S. P. AIP Conf. Proc.,2004, 705, 985-988.

[28.] "A monomeric nickel-dioxygen adduct derived from a nickel(I) complex, and O2", Fujita, K.; Schenker, R.; Gu, W. W.; Brunold, T. C.; Cramer, S. P.; Riordan, C. G. Inorg. Chem., 2004, 43, 3324-3326.

[29.] "X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the LixFePO4 cathode during cycling using a novel electrochemical in situ reaction cell", Deb, A.; Bergmann, U.; Cairns, E. J.; Cramer, S. P. J. Synchrotron Rad., 2004,11, 497-504.

[30.] "Structural investigations of LiFePO4 electrodes by Fe X-ray absorption spectroscopy", Deb, A.;

Bergmann, U.; Cairns, E. J.; Cramer, S. P. J. Phys. Chem. B., 2004, 108, 7046-7049.

[31.] "Soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at 2 K: A tool in biological inorganic chemistry", Funk, T.;Friedrich, S.; Young, A. T.; Arenholz, E.; Delano, R.; Cramer, S. P. Rev. Sci. Inst., 2004, 75, 756-759.

[32.] "The electronic structure of Mn in oxides, coordination complexes, and the oxygen-evolving complex ofphotosystem II studied by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering", Glatzel, P.; Bergmann, U.; Yano, J.; Visser, H.;Robblee, J. H.; Gu, W.; de Groot, F. M.; Christou, G.; Pecoraro, V. L.; Cramer, S. P.; Yachandra, V. K. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126, 9946-9959.

[33.] "X-Ray Raman Spectroscopy — A New Tool to Study Local Structure of Aromatic Hydrocarbons andAsphaltenes", Bergmann, U.; Groenzin, H.; Mullins, O. C.; Glatzel, P.; Fetzer, J.; Cramer, S. P. Pet. Sci. Tech.,2004, 22, 863-875.

[34.] "Normal Mode Analysis of Pyrococcus furiosus Rubredoxin via Nuclear Resonant Vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS) and Resonance Raman Spectroscopy", Xiao, Y.; Wang, H.; George, S. J.; Smith, M. C.;Adams, M. W. W.; Francis E. Jenney, J.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E. E.; Zhao, J.; Yoda, Y.; Dey, A.; Solomon, E. I.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127, 14596-14606.

[35.] "X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biological photolysis products: kilohertz photolysis and soft X-rayapplications", Wang, H.; Peng, G.; Cramer, S. P. J. Elect. Spect. Rel. Phen., 2005, 143, 1-7.

[36.] "In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopic study of the Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 cathode material", Deb, A.;

Bergmann, U.; Cramer, S. P.; Cairns, E. J. J. App. Phys., 2005, 97, 113523-I -113523-XI. [37.] "Normal Mode Analysis of [FeCl4]-and [Fe2S2Cl4]2-via Vibrational Mössbauer, Resonance Raman, and FT­IR Spectroscopy", Smith, M. C.; Xiao, Y.; Wang, H.; George, S. J.; Coucovanis, D.; Koutmos, M.; Sturhahn, W.;Alp, E. E.; Zhao, J.; Cramer, S. P. Inorg. Chem., 2005, 44, 5562-5570.

[38.] "High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy of molybdenum compounds", Doonan, C. J.; Zhang, L.;Young, C. G.; George, S. J.; Deb, A.; Bergmann, U.; George, G. N.; Cramer, S. P. Inorg. Chem., 2005, 44, 2579­2581.

[39.] "X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism – A High Energy Probe of Magnetic Properties", Funk, T.; Deb, A.;

George, S. J.; Wang, H.; Cramer, S. P. Coord. Chem. Rev., 2005, 249, 3-30. [40.] "Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopy at the Mn K absorption pre-edge — a direct probe of the 3d orbitals", Glatzel, P.; Yano, J.; Bergmann, U.; Visser, H.; John H. Robblee; Gu, W.; Groot, F. M.

F. d.; Cramer, S. P.; Yachandra, V. K. J. Phys. Chem. Sol., 2005, 66, 2163–2167. [41.] "A study of transition metal K absorption pre-edges by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS)",

Glatzel, P.; Bergmann, U.; de Groot, F. M. F.; Weckhuysen, B. M.; Cramer, S. P. Physica Scripta, 2005, T115, 1032­1034. [42.] "Structural investigations of LiFePO4 electrodes and in situ studies by Fe X-ray absorption spectroscopy",

Deb, A.; Bergmann, U.; Cramer, S. P.; Cairns, E. J. Electrochim. Acta, 2005, 50, 5200-5207.

[43.] "Cerium Oxidation State in LSO:Ce Scintillators", Melcher, C. L.; Friedrich, S.; Stephen P. Cramer; Spurrier, M. A.; Szupryczynski, P.; Nutt, R. IEEE Trans. Nuc. Sci., 2005, 52, 1809-1812. [44.] "How Nitrogenase Shakes -Initial Information about P-Cluster and FeMo-Cofactor Normal Modes from

Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS)", Xiao, Y.; Fisher, K.; Smith, M. C.; Newton, W.; Case, D.A.; George, S. J.; Wang, H.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E. E.; Zhao, J.; Yoda, Y.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006,128, 7608-7612.

[45.] "A 36-pixel superconducting tunnel junction soft X-ray detector for environmental science applications",

Friedrich, S.; Drury, O. B.; Cramer, S. P.; Green, P. G. Nucl. Inst. Meth. A, 2006, 559, 776–778. [46.] "The advantages of soft X-rays and cryogenic spectrometers for measuring chemical speciation by X-rayspectroscopy", Drury, O. B.; Friedrich, S.; George, S. J.; Cramer, S. P. Nucl. Inst. Meth. A, 2006, 559, 728-730.

[47.] "Dynamics of an [Fe4S4(SPh)4]2-Cluster Explored via IR, Raman, and Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS) – Analysis using 36S Substitution, DFT Calculations, and Empirical Force Fields", Xiao,Y.; Koutmos, M.; Case, D. A.; Coucouvanis, D.; Wang, H.; Cramer, S. P. Dalton Trans., 2006, 2192-2201.

[48.] "Local structure of LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 cathode material probed by in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy", Deb,

A.; Bergmann, U.; Cramer, S. P.; Cairns, E. J. J. App. Phys., 2006, 99, 063701-063701 063701-063710. [49.] "Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS) of Fe–S model compounds, Fe–S proteins, andnitrogenase", Cramer, S. P.; Xiao, Y.; Wang, H.; Guo, Y.; Smith, M. C. Hyperfine Interact., 2006, 170, 47-54.

[50.] "Observation of Terahertz Vibrations in Pyrococcus furiosus Rubredoxin via Impulsive Coherent Vibrational Spectroscopy and Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy – Interpretation by MolecularMechanics", Tan, M.-L.; Bizzarri, A. R.; Xiao, Y.; Cannistraro, S.; Ichiye, T.; Manzoni, C.; Cerullo, G.; Adams, M.

W. W.; Francis E. Jenney, J.; Cramer, S. P. J. Inorg. Biochem., 2007, 101, 375-384.

[51.] "Identification of a Mo-Fe-S cluster on NifEN by Mo K-edge EXAFS", George, S. J.; Igarashi, R. Y.; Piamonteze, C.; Soboh, B.; Cramer, S. P.; Rubio, L. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 3060-3061. [52.] "In Situ X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Study of Li1.05Ni0.35Co0.25Mn0.4O2 Cathode Material Coated with

LiCoO2 ", Deb, A.; Bergmann, U.; Cramer, S. P.; Elton J. Cairns J. Electrochem. Soc., 2007, 154, A534-A541. [53.] "Characterization of a Genuine Iron(V)-Nitrido Species by Nuclear Resonant Vibrational SpectroscopyCoupled to Density Functional Calculations", Petrenko, T.; George, S. D.; Aliaga-Alcalde, N.; Bill, E.; Mienert,

B.; Xiao, Y.; Guo, Y.; Sturhahn, W.; Cramer, S. P.; Wieghardt, K.; Neese, F. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 11053­11060. [54.] "The superconducting high-resolution soft X-ray spectrometer at the advanced biological and

environmental X-ray facility", Friedrich, S.; Drury, O. B.; George, S. J.; Cramer, S. P. Nucl. Inst. Meth. A, 2007,582, 187-189. [55.] "A novel solution reaction of hexahydridoferrate(4-) with iron(II) that produces iron particles", Linn Jr.,

D. E.; Guo, Y.; Cramer, S. P. Inorg. Chim. Acta, 2008, 361, 1552-1554.

[56.] "X-Ray Photochemistry in Iron Complexes from Fe(0) to Fe(IV) – Can a Bug Become a Feature?", George,

S. J.; Fu, J.; Guo, Y.; Drury, O.; Friedrich, S.; Rauchfuss, T.; Volkers, P. I.; Peters, J. C.; Scott, V.; Brown, S. D.;

Thomas, C. M.; Cramer, S. P. Inorg. Chim. Acta, 2008, 361, 1157-1165. [57.] "Characterization of the Fe Site in Iron−Sulfur Cluster-Free Hydrogenase (Hmd) and of a Model Compound via Nuclear Resonant Vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS) ", Guo, Y.; Wang, H.; Xiao, Y.; Vogt, S.;Thauer, R. K.; Shima, S.; Volkers, P. I.; Rauchfuss, T. B.; Pelmenschikov, V.; Case, D. A.; Alp, E.; Sturhahn, W.;Yoda, Y.; Cramer, S. P. Inorg. Chem., 2008, 47, 3969-3977.

[58.] "Dynamics of Rhodobacter capsulatus [2Fe-2S] Ferredoxin VI and Aquifex aeolicus Ferredoxin 5 via Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS) and Resonance Raman Spectroscopy", Xiao, Y.; Tan, M.-L.; Ichiye,T.; Wang, H.; Guo, Y.; Smith, M. C.; Meyer, J.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E. E.; Zhao, J.; Yoda, Y.; Cramer, S. P.Biochemistry, 2008, 47, 6612–6627.

[59.] "EXAFS and NRVS Reveal that NifB-co, a FeMo-co Precursor, Comprises a 6Fe Core with an InterstitialLight Atom", George, S. J.; Igarashi, R. Y.; Xiao, Y.; Hernandez, J. A.; Demuez, M.; Zhao, D.; Yoda, Y.; Ludden,

P. W.; Rubio, L. M.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 5673-5680. [60.] "A combined NRVS and DFT study of Fe(IV)=O model complexes: a diagnostic method for the elucidation of non-heme iron enzyme intermediates", Bell III, C. B.; Wong, S. D.; Xiao, Y.; Klinker, E. J.;

Tenderholt, A. L.; Smith, M. C.; Rohde, J. U.; Que Jr., L.; Cramer, S. P.; Solomon, E. I. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.,2008, 47, 9071-9074. [61.] "Molybdenum X-Ray Absorption Edges from 200 – 20,000 eV, The Benefits of Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy for

Chemical Speciation", George, S. J.; Drury, O. B.; Fu, J.; Friedrich, S.; Doonan, C. J.; George, G. N.; White, J. M.;

Young, C. G.; Cramer, S. P. J. Inorg. Biochem., 2009, 103, 157-167. [62.] "Observation of Terahertz Vibrations in the Nitrogenase FeMo-cofactor via Femtosecond Pump Probe Spectroscopy – Comparisons with Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy", Delfino, I.; Cerullo, G.;Cannistraro, S.; Manzoni, C.; Polli, D.; Dapper, C.; Newton, W. E.; Guo, Y.; Cramer, S. P. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.,2010, 49, 3912-3915.

[63.] "Fe-H/D stretching and bending modes in nuclear resonant vibrational, Raman and infrared spectroscopies: Comparisons of density functional theory and experiment", Pelmenschikov, V.; Guo, Y.; Wang,H.; Cramer, S. P.; Case, D. A. Faraday Disc., 2010, 148, 409-420.

[64.] "Identification of Protein-Bound Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes by Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy", Tonzetich, Z. J.; Wang, H.; Mitra, D.; Tinberg, C. E.; Do, L. H.; Jenney Jr., F. E.; Adams, M. W.W.; Cramer, S. P.; Lippard, S. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 6914–6916.

[65.] "Synthesis of the 2Fe subcluster of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase H-cluster on the HydF scaffold", Shepard, E.M.; McGlynn, S. E.; Bueling, A. L.; Grady-Smith, C. S.; George, S. J.; Winslow, M. A.; Cramer, S. P.; Peters, J.W.; Broderick, J. B. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 2010, 107, 10448-10453.

[66.] "[FeFe]-Hydrogenase Maturation: HydG-Catalyzed Synthesis of Carbon Monoxide", Shepard, E. M.;Duffus, B. R.; George, S. J.; McGlynn, S. E.; Challand, M. R.; Swanson, K. D.; Roach, P. L.; Cramer, S. P.; Peters,

J. W.; Broderick, J. B. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 9247-9249.

[67.] "Synchrotron X-ray analyses demonstrate phosphate-bound gadolinium in skin in nephrogenic systemicfibrosis", George, S. J.; Webb, S. M.; Abraham, J. L.; Cramer, S. P. Brit. J. Dermatology, 2010, 163, 1077-1081. [68.] "Infrared and EPR Spectroscopic Characterization of a Ni(I) Species Formed by Photolysis of a

Catalytically Competent Ni(I)-CO Intermediate in the Acetyl-CoA Synthase Reaction", Bender, G.; Stich, T. A.;

Yan, L.; Britt, R. D.; Cramer, S. P.; Ragsdale, S. W. Biochemistry, 2010, 49, 7516-7523. [69.] "High-yield expression of heterologous [FeFe] hydrogenases in Escherichia coli", Kuchenreuther, J. M.; Grady-Smith, C. S.; Bingham, A. S.; George, S. J.; Cramer, S. P.; Swartz, J. R. PLoS ONE, 2010, 5, e15491.

[70.] "Characterization of Iron Dinitrosyl Species Formed in the Reaction of Nitric Oxide with a BiologicalRieske Center", Tinberg, C. E.; Tonzetich, Z. J.; Wang, H.; Do, L. H.; Yoshitaka Yoda; Cramer, S. P.; Lippard, S.

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[71.] "Steric Control of the of Hi-CO MoFe Nitrogenase Complex Revealed by Stopped-Flow Infra-red Spectroscopy", Yang, Z.-Y.; Seefeldt, L. C.; Dean, D. R.; Cramer, S. P.; George, S. J. Angew. Chem., 2011, 123, 286­

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Spectroscopy", Yan, L.; Dapper, C. H.; George, S. J.; Wang, H.-X.; Mitra, D.; Dong, W.-B.; Newton, W. E.;Cramer, S. P. Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2011, 2011, 2064-2074.

[73.] "Cell-free H-cluster Synthesis and [FeFe] Hydrogenase Activation: All Five CO and CN-Ligands Derivefrom Tyrosine", Kuchenreuther, J. M.; George, S. J.; Grady-Smith, C. S.; Cramer, S. P.; Swartz, J. R. PLoS ONE,2011, 6, e20346.

[74.] "Dynamics of the [4Fe-4S] Cluster in Pyrococcus furiosus D14C Ferredoxin via Nuclear Resonance Vibrational and Resonance Raman Spectroscopies, Force Field Simulations, and Density Functional TheoryCalculations", Mitra, D.; Pelmenschikov, V.; Guo, Y.; Case, D. A.; Wang, H.; Dong, W.; Tan, M.-L.; Ichiye, T.;Francis E. Jenney, J.; Adams, M. W. W.; Yoda, Y.; Zhao, J.; Cramer, S. P. Biochemistry, 2011, 50, 5220–5235.

[75.] "Observation of dd excitations in NiO and NiCl2 using K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering", van

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[76.] "Characterization of a Synthetic Peroxodiiron(III) Protein Model Complex by Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy", Do, L. H.; Wang, H.; Tinberg, C. E.; Dowty, E.; Yoda, Y.; Cramer, S. P.; Lippard, S. J.Chem. Commun., 2011, 47, 10945-10947.

[77.] "EXAFS and NRVS Reveal a Conformational Distortion of the FeMo-cofactor in the MoFe NitrogenasePropargyl Alcohol Complex", George, S. J.; Barney, B. M.; Mitra, D.; Igarashi, R. Y.; Guo, Y.; Dean, D. R.;Cramer, S. P.; Seefeldt, L. C. J. Inorg. Biochem., 2012, 112, 85-92.

[78.] "Exploration of Synchrotron Mössbauer Microscopy with Micrometer Resolution: Forward and a NewBackscattering Modality on Natural Samples", Yan, L.; Zhao, J.; Toellner, T. S.; Divan, R.; Xu, S.; Cai, Z.;Boesenberg, J. S.; Friedrich, J. M.; Cramer, S. P.; Alp, E. E. J. Syn. Rad., 2012, 19, 814-820.

[79.] "Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) of rubredoxin and MoFe protein crystals", Guo, Y.;Brecht, E.; Aznavour, K.; Nix, J.; Xiao, Y.; Wang, H.; George, S.; Bau, R.; Keable, S.; Peters, J.; Adams, M. W.; Jr,

F. J.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E.; Zhao, J.; Yoda, Y.; Cramer, S. Hyperfine Interact., 2012, 1-14. [80.] "Redox, haem and CO in enzymatic catalysis and regulation", Ragsdale, S. W.; Yi, L.; Bender, G.; Gupta,N.; Kung, Y.; Yan, L. F.; Stich, T. A.; Doukov, T.; Leichert, L.; Jenkins, P. M.; Bianchetti, C. M.; George, S. J.;

Cramer, S. P.; Britt, R. D.; Jakob, U.; Martens, J. R.; Phillips, G. N.; Drennan, C. L. Biochem. Soc. Trans., 2012, 40,501-507.

[81.] "Real sample temperature: a critical issue in the experiments of nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy

on biological samples", Wang, H. X.; Yoda, Y.; Kamali, S.; Zhou, Z. H.; Cramer, S. P. J. Synchrot. Radiat., 2012,

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[82.] "IR-Monitored Photolysis of CO-Inhibited Nitrogenase: A Major EPR-Silent Species with CoupledTerminal CO Ligands", Yan, L.; Pelmenschikov, V.; Dapper, C. H.; Scott, A. D.; Newton, W. E.; Cramer, S. P.Chem. Eur. J., 2012, 18, 16349–16357.

[83.] "Fluorescence-Detected X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism of Well-Defined MnII and NiII Doped in MgO Crystals: Credential Evaluation for Measurements on Biological Samples", Wang, H.; Bryant, C.; LeGros, M.;Wang, X.; Cramer, S. P. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2012, 116, 10082–10089.

[84.] "Structure and spectroscopy of a bidentate bis-homocitrate molybdenum(VI) complex: Insights relevantto the structure and properties of the FeMo-cofactor in nitrogenase", Zhou, Z.-H.; Wang, H.; Yu, P.; Olmstead,

M. M.; Cramer, S. P. J. Inorg. Biochem., 2013, 118, 100-106. [85.] "Observation of the Fe-CN and Fe-CO Vibrations in the Active Site of [NiFe] Hydrogenase by NuclearResonance Vibrational Spectroscopy", Kamali, S.; Wang, H.; Mitra, D.; Ogata, H.; Lubitz, W.; Manor, B. C.;

Rauchfuss, T. B.; Byrne, D.; Bonnefoy, V.; Jenney Jr., F. E.; Adams, M. W. W.; Yoda, Y.; Alp, E.; Zhao, J.;Cramer, S. P. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2013, 52, 724 –728.

[86.] "Characterization of [4Fe-4S] Cluster Dynamics and Structure in Nitrogenase Fe Protein at Three

Oxidation Levels via Combined NRVS, EXAFS and DFT Analyses", Mitra, D.; George, S.; Guo, Y.; Kamali, S.;

Keable, S.; Peters, J.; Pelmenschikov, V.; Case, D.; Cramer, S. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, in press.

[87.] "Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of 57Fe-Enriched [FeFe] Hydrogenase Indicate Stepwise Assembly of the H-Cluster", Kuchenreuther, J. M.; Guo,Y.; Wang, H.; Myers, W. K.; George, S. J.; Boyke, C. A.; Yoda, Y.; Alp, E. E.; Zhao, J.; Britt, R. D.; Swartz, J. R.;Cramer, S. P. Biochemistry, 2013, in press.

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W. E.; Boyke, C.; Rauchfuss, T. B.; Cramer, S. P., in Mössbauer Spectroscopy: Applications in Chemistry, Biology, Industry, and Nanotechnology; Sharma, V., Ed.; Wiley/Days, 2013, pp. in press.